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Hoffman: They Were White and They Were Slaves Call to Glory
by Michael & Marilyn Gilhuly
'The Logic of History'
by Steven Carpenter (1864)
The Tragic Era
Claude Bowers
The South Was Right
by Kennedy Brothers

Michael and Marilyn Gilhuly wrote
this book about a Confederate ancestor.

Based on the author's family history, Call To Glory, The Life & Times of a Texas Ranger traces the saga of the Wiley brothers, three fiercely proud Texans whose destinies ran through the most tumultuous times in American history. From joining ranks with fellow Texans in the Civil War to donning the silver badge of the Ranger to protect a still deadly frontier, Call To Glory, The Life & Times of a Texas Ranger recounts a gripping story of justice, romance and honor.

Go to for more details. 

Call to Glory (38332 bytes)

The Tragic Era

First up on the top ten Confederate reading list is 'The Tragic Era' by Claude Bowers. Packed with countless contemporary sources, many published by key participants about their CW and post war experiences. This book continues to be a unofficial Reconstruction primer, a period of America history quickly glossed over by our American education system in order to hide the horrors that one section of America inflicted upon another, ethnic cleansing before the modern term came along. You will learn about how the literal extermination of the South people was called for by some of the highest personages in the Federal government.

Extensive newspaper reports are used. In those days political speeches were often published in their entirety in the papers. Bowers also had access to unpublished diaries and collections of letters, like those between Republican Congressman John Sherman and his infamous brother General William T. Sherman of 'March to the Sea' fame.

But I must warn you that no American can read this book without forever having your whole perspective on our country changed forever. It is a distressing and depressing book to read, one that will make you very very angry. The good news is that lots of them are still around on the Internet at ABE. I have read mine several times and will share some of my typed up notes and comments below.

This is real history, the good, the bad and the ugly...not the Cinderella fabrications that tend to sell better, with clearly defined good guys and bad guys, without all the 'complications.'

Heritage TV gives this book our highest recommendation.

Jim Dean...your editor.

'The Logic of History'
by Steven Carpenter (1864)

'The Logic of History' by Steven Carpenter (1864) is next up on our 'top ten' book list. Steven Carpenter was a Democratic newspaper publisher in Madison Wisconsin, who compiled what may be the most interesting scrapbook in American history. He began saving clippings from other publishings of the time for his own reference. As the years went by he began to see he had acquired a body of information that no one else in American had, and decided to publish his 'scrap book'. The result is one of the most amazing historical journeys that I have taken.

Once again, I have to warn you that if you read this book, your perspective of your country will be changed forever. This book totally devastates the Lincoln cult and exposes him and the Radical Republicans as destroyers of our Founding Father's precious gift. It also exposes that fraudulent history of the court historians that we were all spoon fed while growing up.

Heritage TV survey interviews have shown that Americans do not have a clue has to any real historical framing. By that I mean that key historical events are taught in an honest framing of events that preceded and surrounded the event in question. This sleight of hand is not done across the board, but only to perpetrate historical hoaxes that the court historians and political correctness police have decided to perpetuate for some political, financial or racial benefit to them.

In the section of my notes below the issue of the fear of slave rebellions is covered, along with a review of disastrous economic failure of the British emancipation of their Jamaican slaves. Despite my 50 years of age and 3000 book library I had never head a peep about any of this. In fact, getting information like this out to contemporary Americans was one of the driving engines for my wanting to start Heritage TV. Americans today are almost completely disconnected to their roots. The average person's connection with our history rarely reaches past the comic book and Hollywood depth. This renders us morally and intellectually incapable of standing up to the continued erosion of traditional American values. 

Knowledge is power. Ignorance is weakness and a short step away from what I call the 'new slavery'...that of becoming one of the herd, 'sheepeople'. We are conned and manipulated on a daily basis by a wide assortment of our institutions, special interests, and heritage haters, pursuing their endless dream of reinventing America. This reinvention involves destroying what has come before so their failures are less obvious.

A dumbed down, distracted, ignorant, apathetic, and complacent public is the desired citizen backdrop for this activity. Through our TV shows, videos and this website, Heritage TV hopes to make the difficult job of deprogramming modern Americans a reality. Without thoroughly understanding the most critical issues of American history, particularly our War Between the States, we will be powerless to ensure that our children will grow up in an America that has any resemblance to the ideals of our Founding Fathers.

'The Logic of History' is available in facsimile reprint form if you search around for it on the Net. Those of you with school age children, especially highschool, should make this required reading for them. Make it a family project. Discuss what you are reading together. Explore your own personal genealogy while you are doing this and I guarantee that it will from a tighter family bond than you could possibly imagine. Do it. Please do it.

Be a keeper of the flame and walk with us carrying the American torch high, rather than sulking in the safety of the shadows where the heritage haters may not see you. If you feel that the material we feature here is extremely valuable to you, please consider a donation to help support the continuation of this volunteer work. It is extremely laborious, as you might imagine. But once we have it condensed, you will have access to the guts and the gems of these rare and very important books.

Only by helping each other can we ever be successful. The clock is ticking away. The heritage haters are busy little beavers. What are you doing to stop them? The front page has our mailing information.

Jim Dean - Editor

Exerpts from The Logic of History by Steven Carpenter (1864)

"We cannot escape history." Abraham Lincoln
[...and we will see to it that he does not :-) ...jd]

This I hold to be the chief office of history: To rescue virtuous actions from oblivion to which a want of records would consign them, and that men should feel a dread of being considered infamous in the opinions of posterity, for their depraved expressions and base actions. --- Tacitus

[This is the mission of Heritage TV...jd]

Re: St. Domingo uprising. Midnight, October 30th 1791,

The unchained African signalized his ingenuity by the discovery of new and unheard of modes of torture. An unhappy planter was sawed asunder between two boards; the horrors inflicted on the women exceeded anything known even in the annals of Christian ferocity. Crowds of slaves traversed the country with the heads of white children affixed on their pikes; they served as the standards of these furious assemblages. (Allison's History). p 12

Twenty thousand negroes broke into the city (Port au Prince June 20th 1801), with the torch in one hand and the sword in the other spread slaughter and devastation around. Neither age nor sex were spared; the young were cut down in striving to defend their houses, the aged in the churches where they had fled to implore protection; virgins were immolated on the altar; weeping infants hurled into the fire. Thirty thousand human beings perished in the massacre. p 13

[It is only after studying the contemporary record of these slave rebellions that we can have any chance of understanding the horror that Southerners felt when Northern abolitionists like Wendell Phillips and William Garrison were advocating a slave rebellion in the South (even from church pulpits)...the desired result being exactly what happened in Haiti. The only modern analogy I can think of is that of a black race racketeering politician and his liberal white supporters calling for lower class blacks to burn, rob and rape the Republican neighborhoods in town if they should lose the next election (or even before). Not even Jesse Jackson would advocate such a thing today (although the Black Panthers hint at this frequently). But in the pre-Civil War days, slave rebellion incitement was used as a terrorist weapon...jd]

Re: Emancipated slaves refusing to work.

The freed West India slave will not till the soil for wages. The free son of the ex-slave is as obstinate as his sire. He will not cultivate lands, which he has not bought for his own‚€¶The Negro has been bought with a price of English taxation and English toil. He has been redeemed from bondage by the sweat and travail of some millions of hard working Englishmen. Twenty millions of pounds sterling - $100,000,000 - have been distilled from the brains and muscles of the free English laborer, of every degree, to fashion the West Indies negro into a "free' independent laborer. 'Free and independent' enough he has become, God knows, but laborer, he is not, and so far as we can see, never will be. He will sing hymns and quote texts, but honest, steady industry he not only detests, but despises!" The London Times

Anthony Trollop, who wrote a book on Jamaica. 'He will work a little, but after that he is content to lie in the sun. He refuses to work after 10 o'clock in the morning. One-half of the sugar-estates, and more than one-half of the coffee plantations have gone back into a state of bush.' p 18

Mungo Park, writing of his travels in Africa said, 'Paid servants-persons of a free condition, voluntarily working for pay - are unknown here.' p 18

[Mungo Park is the only known source to have actually travelled a long distance (ever 500 miles) with an African caravan. The long history of African exploitation of slavery is another politically correct buried story that contemporary Americans are not allowed to know...jd]

In Lewis' West Indies, seventeen years before emancipation.' as to free blacks, they are unfortunately lazy and improvident; most of them half starved, and only anxious to live from hand to mouth. As for the free negro hiring himself out for plantation labor, no instance of such thing was ever known in Jamaica! They had no earthly motive to give a greater amount of service than for mere subsistence.' p 18

Sir H. Light and Gov. Barkley 'the majority of the free negroes of the West   Indies are living in idleness.' p18.

In 1850, Mr. John Bigelow [an anti-slavery man - jd], then one of the editors of the New York Evening Post, visited Jamaica and wrote a book thereon. 'It (land) can be bought for $5 to $10 an acre, and five acres confer the right of voting, and eligibility to public offices. Planters offer$1.50 a day for labor; sixteen days labor will enable a man to buy land enough to make him a voter, and the market of Kingston offers a fresh demand for vegetables all the time. There has been no increase in voters in twenty years. Lands run wild. Kingston gets its vegetables from the United States!' p 18

[Part of the problem here, learned from my living in Barbados, where truck gardens ceased after independence, because black neighbors would rob their fellow neighbors who were foolish enough to plant vegetable gardens. This lives on today in the American black hostility toward their fellow blacks that study hard in school resenting anyone getting ahead of them...jd]

Ex-Gov. Wood, of Ohio, who paid a visit to Jamaica in 1853, and who is no friend to slavery, say: 'Since the blacks have been liberated, they have become indolent, insolent, degraded, and dishonest. They are a rude beastly set of vagabonds, lying naked about the streets, as filthy as Hottentots, and I believe worse. On getting to the wharf of Kingston, the first thing the blacks of both sexes, perfectly naked, came swarming about the boat' p 18

[This is an important source because it shows that even aboltionists were aware of the massive failure of the British/Jamaican emancipation...jd]

Sewell in his work on the 'Ordeal of Free Labor', in which he defends emancipation and pleads for still more extended privileges to the blacks says of Kingston: "There is not a house that is in decent repair; not a wharf in good order; no pavement, no sidewalk, no drainage, and scanty water; no light. There is nothing like work done. Wreck and ruin, devastation and neglect. The inhabitants, taken en masse, are steeped to the eyelids in immorality. The population shows a natural decrease. Illegitimacy exceeds legitimacy. Nothing is replaced that time destroys." p 19

[This is another important pro-abolition source. Sewell had actually predicted a Jamaican uptopia after emancipation. He was dead wrong and admits it in his writings after his visiting the post emancipation destruction of Jamaica, where the blacks were worse off than they had been as slaves...jd]

American Missionary (abolitionists) , July 1855, quotes a letter from a Jamaican missionary: 'A man here, may be a drunkard, a liar, a Sabbath breaker, a profane man, a fornicator, an adulterer, and such like, and be known to be such, and go to chapel, and hold up his head there, and feel no disgrace for these things, because they are so common as to create a public sentiment in his favor.' p 19

[Again, the truth of all this is recorded in the writings to the religious people who went there. These reports were widely published in American and anyone who could read was aware of the debacle...jd]

So there you have it folks...what REALLY happened...And we are only on page 19 !!!! This backdrop of the British/Jamaican emancipation I know not one out of a hundred of you is aware. You are not supposed to know this. It is not allowed. You would be harder to manipulate via the tried and true 'white guilt trip' routine.

Ordinary British taxpayers at the time lived under a crushing burden of taxation, and $100,000, 000 of it went right down the drain in this emancipation fiasco. The plantation infrastructure and huge Jamaican exports also went down the drain, a huge additional loss of capital. This reduced the tax base for providing public services to third world status. Freed blacks regressed to a primitive existence that continues to some extent today. The history hoaxters, practicing their selective memories, have classified this a 'wonderful event'.

When I lived in Barbados for three years, I noticed right away that the men would usually not work in the fields. The women did most of this work. The men you would see sitting around the 1600 rum shops around the island. The old African tradition of the women doing the agricultural work while the men did 'their thing' still lives on.

To be aware of this (that Southern Americans of that period were aware of this) is to throw a whole different light onto the Gordian Knot of slave emancipation, which is NEVER framed in its honest historical perspective.

They lie to you. The lie empowers them, and disempowers you. That is why they do it. They are not stupid. But they want you to be so.

Anti-Southern/Confederate bigotry is built upon this huge mountain of historical huckstering. It's is time to assign the hucksters their proper place in American history, that of complete denigration and reproach. They have earned the distinction and it is only fair that they receive their hard earned due.

Check back on this page for further additions, which I guarantee will all be fascinating.

Jim Dean....editor


The following material is presented here to add interest and generate support for our efforts to bring to a wider audience facts and writings
that have general interest but not general availability. - Bo Sewell

Reprinted from

A Letter to Southern Messenger

Reparations for slavery? This is nothing new. Blacks have been receiving reparations since 1865. I don't understand all of the squawk about reparations!

The Freedman's Bureau was the first stage of reparations followed by welfare (excuse me, public assistance), food stamps, affirmative action, and all of the other "I deserve it, now you give it to me because my people have suffered enough" programs. Folks, this country has already experienced all of the reparations it can stand. There just ain't no more to give it we are to remain the constitutional republic(???) that we are supposed to be. We have a segment of our population that has become whiners without which there can be no existence without all of the givaway programs to which they feel that they are entitled and demand.

Reparations for slavery? Its nothing new. Its been going on for 135 years. Its just that those who are receiving it don't have the sense to realize it.


Hoffman: They Were White and They Were Slaves

White Slave preference/attitudes:

"The price of African slaves was prohibitively high and the English were neither familiar with nor committed to black slavery as a basic institution' (Beckles, White Servitude, p 3) p 80

The traffic in these "goods properly managed will in a few years make us very genteel fortunes. The sales of the convicts run up amazingly in a little time." (William Stevenson to James Cheston, Sept 12, 1768 and Dec. 30 1769, Cheston-Galloway Papers, Maryland Historical Society.

Benjamin Franklin opposed White slavery and supposedly referred to White convict-slaves shipped to America as "human serpents". (Ekirch, p 153) p 105

A 1679 colonial census of Whites who fled slavery to scratch out an existence as subsistence and tenant farmers shows that they had to flee to the worst land where they existed in extreme poverty (as bait for the Indians‚€|jd) , forming yeoman peasant communities in the hills p 110

Rich, White plantation owners joined with the negroes in insulting White slaves and poor White people, referring to them as "poor-white earthscratching scum," "crackers", "redshanks" , "redlegs" (forerunner of the "redneck" racial insult current nowadays), "Hill Billys" and "Scotland Johnnies". p 110

" A loyalist refugee from Georgia wrote in 1783: 'The southern colonies are overrun with a swarm of men from the western parts of Virginia and North Carolina, distinguished by the name of Crackers. Many of these people are descended from the convicts that were transported from Great Britain to Virginia at different times, and inherit so much profligacy from their ancestors, that they are the most abandoned set of men on earth, few on them having the least sense of religion. During the King's Government these Crackers were very troublesome in the settlements they also occasioned frequent disputes with the Indians" (Anthony Stokes, A View of the Constitutions of the British Colonies, quoted in Ekirch, p 193) p 111

In 1717, it was proposed that a qualification for election to the South Carolina Assembly was to be "the ownership of one white man." (Journals of the Commons House of Assembly of the Province of South Carolina: 1692-1775, volume 5,pp.294-295)

" It is enacted that no negro or Indian though baptized and enjoyned their owne ffreedome shall be capable of any such purchase of Christians [white slaves]...."......Statutes of the Virginia Assemble, Vo. 2,pp.280-81...[This statute was passed in 1670 to stop the growing 'problem', brought to a head especially by the purchasing of white females slaves by blacks and Indians].

In 1654 Henry whistler called the White slaves of Barbados "rubbish, rogues and whores" (Journal of the West Indian Expedition) p 111

In England they were referred to by Edmund Burke as a "swinish multitude," by Samuel Johnson as "rabble" and by Sir Josiah Child as "loose, vagrant .vicious people." p 111

Historians have failed to consistently describe White chattel by the scientifically accurate term for their condition, that of a slave. By avoiding this description, many academics have perpetuated the propaganda of the plutocracy which inflicted these horrors upon White humanity. p 112

"Contemporary observers described it (being a servant) as 'white slavery' and referred to indentured servants as 'White Slaves." (Beckles, p 71) p 112

"Their bodies and souls are used as if hell commenced here and only continued in the world to come." (Thomas Montgomery, in a letter to the Lords of Trade and Plantations, on the suffering of white slaves, August 3, 1688.)

"Indentured servitude .gave ordinary whites of the (American) revolutionary generation galling experience if a variety of social oppressions" (Roediger, p 30)

Harriet Beecher Stowe was one of the greatest hypocrites of the 19th century, a pious fraud whose legacy of malignant hatred for her own kind has infected many another White man and woman to this day.

During her triumphant 1853 tour of Britain in the wake of the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin, Stowe was the guest of the Duchess of Sutherland, a woman of vast wealth who had an interest in the "betterment of the negro."

The Sutherland wealth was based in part on one of the most criminal land-grabs in British history. The Sutherlands had seized the ancient holdings of the traditional clans of Scotland and burned the Highland 'crofters" (farmers) off their lands, resulting in pauperism and in many cases, outright starvation of Scottish women and children (Henry C. Carey, The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign, pp 204-209; John Prebble, The Highland Clearances, pp 288-295).

At one point the Sutherlands even hired armed guards to prevent famine-stricken Scottish Highlander "rabble" from catching fish in the Sutherland's well-stocked salmon and trout rivers (Prebble, p 293).

When Harriet Beecher Stowe returned to America she wrote a glowing account of the Sutherlands in her travel book Sunny Memories, specifically praising them for their "enlightened land policies" in Scotland, which she described as, "an almost sublime instance of the benevolent employment of superior wealth and power in shortening the struggles of advancing civilization" (Cunliffe, p 18, Prebble, p 292).

In response to Stowe's appallling whitewash of the crimes committed against the Scottish Highlanders, a London newspaper

described Uncle Tom's Cabin as a "downright imposture" and "ranting, canting nonsense" (Cunliffe, Ibid.) p 123


English White Slave History:

Old English law did have something of a White slave code, based on the concept of "villeinage" from which we derive the words villain and villainy with their new perjorative connotations. With the emergence of English Common

Law (1175-1225), the aristocrats drafted the writ of novel disseisin to establish a category of juridical unfreedom known as villein tenure which could defeat any English peasant's claim to land, no matter how long his family had held it. Later the Bracton code ( from his treatise, De Legibus et

Consuetudinunibus Angliae...Sir Henry de Bracton) equated the English villein with the Roman servus or slave, thus denying him all basic rights p 118

Villeinage was considered a hereditary condition: "Neither of Duke, earl or lord by ancestry but of villain (vylayne) people" (Bradshaw, ST Werburge, 1513). "Thou art of vylayn blood on thy father's side" (Caxton, 1483).

In Britain and Europe under the laws of villeinage, survivors and descendants of White slavery were susceptable to discrimination before the law and even reenslavement. p 121

This stigma was based not only in law but in racial terms: "the culture of (medieval) slaveholders created an image of (White) slaves that set them apart, their whole moral character tainted by the fact of enslavement if not by slave ancestry." (Karras, pp 15-16) p 121

This taint, which the ruling class cleverly asserted was the result of some hereditary defect among White slaves, has been applied to many nations of White peoples form the Slavs to the Irish, Welsh and Scottish..p 121

The creation of an exculpatory nomenclature rigged to justify the depredations of the ruling class against the White poor by establishing an intrinsic relationship between being poor and being evil, is a masterstroke of propaganda. It leads to the internalization of these negative images in the minds of the White poor themselves. p 121


The Auction Block:

Another observer watching the auction of a hundred White slaves in Williamsburg, Virginia, "I never seen such passels of poor wretches in my life. Some almost naked " (Ekirch, pp100 and 122)...p 80



White Salve Revolts:

Individual acts of rebellion by White slaves were constant and many slavemasters were killed. "...unrest among the servants was more or less chronic." (Bridenbaugh, p 108)

"During the third quarter of the seventeenth century, impoverished white laborers had kept the (Virginia) province on the brink of civil war." (Ekirch, p 133)‚€|p 101..In the Caribbean colonies White slaves revolted by burning the sugar cane of the of the slave masters "to the utter ruin and undoing of their Masters."

In 1676 Nathaniel Bacon led an uprising in Virginia. A small army of former White slaves and fugitive White slaves joined with the 30 year old Indian fighter Bacon against the House of Burgesses and the Governor, sparked by anger at their own penurious condition after having been cheated by the Royal out of the "head" acreage they were promised and enraged by the Royal government's apathy in the face of murderous Indian raids. Bacon's rebels burned down the city of Jamestown, plundered the plantations and expelled Berkeley. The last of them were captured or killed by January of 1677‚€|.. p 101

"Governor Berkeley despaired of ever subduing a White underclass of 'people where six parts in seven are poor, indebted, discontented and armed."

(Ekirch, p 134) p 102

Other White slave rebellions included the risings of 1634 which took 800 troops to put down, and 1647 in which 18 leaders of the White revolt were tortured and hung. P 102

The rulers of Barbados passed a proclamation in 1649, "an act for an Annual Day of Thanksgiving for our deliverance from the last insurrection of servants." Richard Ligon was an eye witness to this White slave plot on Barbados.. p 102

And in Virginia: "After mid century the number of runaway (White) servants increased steadily, and in 1661 and 1663, servants in two separate (Virginia) counties took up arms and demanded freedom...(Levine, p 56...p 102

More White slave "plots" and revolts occurred in 1686 and 1692 including a rebellion by the "Independents" an insurgent group of White Protestant slaves and freedmen who revolted against Maryland's Catholic theocracy p 102

Forty Irish slaves in 1735 ran a vessel aground off Nova Scotia and executed the entire ship's companyp 102

In 1751 English slaves from Liverpool shot the ship's captain, drove a spike through the jaw of one of the crew, locked up the remainder and fled the vessel for the north Carolina coast(Ekirch, p 109) p 103

Around 1720 a teenager, James Dalton, who had seen his father hanged at the Tyburn gallows, was seized, sentenced to enslavement in the colonies and placed aboard the ship Honor, bound for Virginia. During a storm he and fifteen other White slaves successfully battled the captain and crew, winning control of the ship and escaping to the Spanish coast.

In 1721 white slaves were arrested while attempting to seize an arsenal at Annapolis, Maryland, the arms to be used in an uprising against the Planters..p 103

In Florida in 1768 White slaves revolted at the Turnbull plantation in New Smyrna. The government needed two ships full of troops and cannon to put down the revolt. p 103

A White field slave, Jeremiah Swift, when ordered by his master's son to hoe another 1000 tobacco hills before night, bashed his head in with his hoe.

Grabbing an axe and a knife we went to the master John Hartley's house, killing one of his daughters and stabbing another. (Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9, May 16, June 27, 1751) p 104

Another White slave, worked half to death, grabbed an axe, confronted the master's wife in her kitchen, and while laying his hand on her chopping block, whacked it off and threw it at her with the admonition, "Now see me work if you can!" (Maryland Gazette, April 17, May 1, 1751) p 104

"Irish servant class hero Cornelius Bryan was imprisoned for mutiny on countless occasions and regularly whipped by the hangman for assembling servants and publicly making anti-planter remarks" (Beckles, "Rebels and Reactionaries," p 18) p 104

The aristocratic planters had felt the necessity to "arm part of their blackmen" to assist in suppressing White slave revolts. (Beckles, ibid. p 17) p 104

Armed Black militias patrolled the Carolinas from the end of the 17th century to a least 1710 when Thomas Nairne reported that Blacks continued to be members of British colonial militias organized by local governments p 104

In Maryland in 1715, a reward was offered to American Indians who were recruited as bounty hunters to capture runaway Whites and return them to their masters, "For the better discovery of and encouragement of our neighbor Indians to seize, apprehend or take up any runaway servants." It was decreed that for every fugitive White laborer the Indians caught and brought "before a magistrate, they shall, for a reward, have a match-coat paid him or them, or the value thereof (Maxy's Laws of Maryland, vol one, p. 111)p 104

But throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century, the tobacco, sugar and cotton colonies maintained a sizable White slave population. Negro slaves simply cost too much to import and purchase. Whites were cheaper and more expendable-until they began to fight."planters, especially in the South, eventually elected to replace the restive white servants with the more identifiable and presumably less criminal black slaves." ( Van der Zee p 266) p 105


Child Slaves:

Political/Penal Prisoners:

Ship Captains involved in the White slave trade obtained White slaves with penal status either free of charge or were subsidized to take them, and for all other categories of White slaves, they paid at most a small sum to an agent to procure them, forfeiting only the cost of their keep on board ship if they died.

"There were thirty-four identifiable London firms involved in the trade to Maryland form 1746 to 1775‚." (Ekirch .pp73-74)

"convicts provided the colonies with cannon fodder against the Spanish, the French, and the Indians." (Ekirch, p 153) p 105

Benjamin Franklin opposed White slavery and supposedly referred to White convict-slaves shipped to America as "human serpents". (Ekirch, p 153) p 105

"Surviving court records show that in areas (of colonial America) where convicts were imported in large numbers they committed very few offenses . . . crime never became a major social problem before the Revolution." (Ekirch, pp 4 and 186) p 105

"Overall most of the convicts were not the 'atrocious villains' so often spoken of" (Shaw, p 164) p 105

When attempts were made to abolish White slavery....the measures were generally voted down, as when in 1748 Virginia's Burgesses upheld the Act of 1705-which legitimized White slavery under a veil of legal phraseology p 105

White convict-labor was used for the very harshest and life-threatening jobs others would not do-such as fighting the Indians and French in Arctic conditions with few-if any-firearms p 106

"...the robber Robert Welch pleaded to be hanged rather than given a transportation... he 'had rather die that live under bondage' Thief Mary Stanford .pleaded to be hanged rather than be transported p 126

"transportation represented a curse that large numbers of men and women feverishly sought to avoid .requesting other punishments, like volunteering their bodies for medical experimentation. In 1721, six prisoners volunteered to undergo a smallpox experiment Similarly, ten years later, Charles Ray, a prisoner in Newgate, offered to let doctors remove his ear drum rather than be transported Another Englishman permitted one of his arms to be amputated 'to test styptic medicines discovered by Mr. Thomas Price" (Ekirch, pp 62-63; Shaw p 34) p 127


Transportation Conditions/Death rates:

White slave ships were cargo ships with no special provisions for passengers p 81

Ships carrying White slaves to America often lost half their slaves to death ..p 77

Salinger reports a death rate of ten to twenty percent over the entire 18th century for Black slaves on board ships enroute to America compared to a death rate of 25% for White slaves ( Salinger, p 92) p77

An average cargo was three hundred, but the shipmaster, for greater profit, would sometimes crowd as many as six hundred into a small vessel. The mortality under such circumstances was tremendous, sometimes more than half Mittleberger (an eye witness) says he saw thirty-two children thrown into the ocean during one voyage. (Jernegan, pp 50-51)

A study of the middle passage of White slaves was included in a Parliamentary Petition of 1659. It reported that White Slaves were locked below deck for two weeks while the slave ship was still in port. Once under way, they were "all the way locked up under decks....among the horses". They were chained from their legs to their necks.

A witness who saw a White slave aboard a ship owned by the slaver John Stewart, reported: " All the states of horror I ever had an idea of are much short of what I saw this man in; chained to a board in a hole not above sixteen feet long, more than 50 with him; a collar and padlock about his neck, and chained to five of the most dreadful creatures I ever looked on." p 79

Out of 350 White slaves on a ship bound for the colonies in 1638 only 80 arrived alive. "We have thrown over board two and three a day for many dayes together" wrote Thomas Rous, a survivor of the trip p 80

A ship carrying White slaves in 1685, the Betty of London, left England with 100 White slaves and srrived in the colonies with 49 left p 80

Captains of slave ships became infamous for providing sufficient for only the first half of the trip and then virtually starving their White captives until they arrived in America. Those that had been pre-sold that died on the second half of the trip were the loss of the buyer p 81

"Jammed into filthy holds, manacled, starved and abused, they suffered and died in during the crossings in gross numbers. Thousands were children under 12, snatched off the streets...." (Kendall p 1) p 81

Due to the high disease rate of arriving White slaves, a ship board quarantine was added to the horrors of the ten to twelve week trip (Salinger, p89) p 82

In 1750 an island was established for their quarantine, Fisher Island, at the mouth of the Schuylkill River In 1764 a clergyman, Pastor Helmuth, visited Fisher Island and described it as "a land of the living dead, a vault full of living corpses." .p 82


Work conditions:

" Before 1650, however, the greater victims of man's inhumanity were the mass of white Christian servants who suffered at the hands of callous, white Christian masters. For the time being, with all of their troubles, the blacks had it better." (Bridenbaugh, p 120) p 82

"Sold to a master in Merion, near Philadelphia, David Evans was put to work 'hewing and uprooting trees'---land clearing, the most arduous of colonial labor, work that was spared black slaves because they were too valualbe." (Van der Zee, p 138) p 82

"Honored Father, ...O Dear Father....I am sure you'll pity your distressed daughter. What we unfortunate English people suffer here is beyond the probability of England to concieve. Let it suffice that I am one of the unhappy number toiling day and night,

and very often the horses druggery, with only the comfort of hearing me called. 'You bitch, you did not do half enough.'

Then I am tied up and whipped to that degree that you'd not serve an animal. I have scarce any thing but Indian corn and salt to eat and that even begrudged. Nay, many negroes are better used....

.....after slaving after Master's pleasure, what rest we can get is to wrap ourselves up in a blanket and lay upon the ground. This is the deplorable condition your poor Betty endures...." ...from a letter by White slave Elizabeth Sprigs in Maryland to her father John Sprigs in London, England, September 22, 1756. (Public record Office, London England, High Court of Admiralty).


Relations with blacks:

Runaway laws, captures, punishments:

...the punishment for a runaway Whites was to be 'branded in the cheek with the letter R.' They also had one or both ears cut off. ... Statues of Virginia, Vol 13, William Henning , p 92

1640 the General Court of Virginia...two White slaves...attempting to run out of the whipped, branded and required to serve the colony an additional seven years in leg irons. p 92

Sept. 20, 1776 the Continental Congress authorized the whipping of unruly enlisted men with up to one hundred lashes. There were cases of 250 lashes. P 93

Herman Melville, in White Jacket or The World in a man of War, witnesses more floggings than had taken place on a plantation of five hundred slaves in ten years. In fourteen months he witnessed 163 floggings p 93

Flogging through the fleet p 94

The beating and whipping of White slaves resulted in so many being beaten to death that in 1662 the Virginia Assembly passed a law prohibiting the private burial of White slaves because such burial helped conceal their murders and encouraged further atrocities against other White slaves p 106

One White slaves owner "made him sick and languishing as he was, dig his own grave, in which he was laid a few days afterwards, the others being too busy to dig it, having their hands full attending to the tobacco." (Jaspar Dankaerts and Peter Sluyter, Journal of a Voyage to New York and a Tour of Several American Colonies, 1679-1680). p 107

In New England, Nicolas Weekes and his wife deliberately cut off the toes of their White slave who subsequently died. p 107

Marmaduke Pierce in Massachusetts severely beat a White slave boy with a rod and finally beat him to death.. p 107

In 1655 in the Plymouth a master named Mr. Latham, starved his 14 year old White slave boy, beat him and left him to die outdoors in sub-zero temperatures...p 107

Colonial records are full of the deaths by beating, starvation and exposure of White slaves in addition to tragic accounts of suicides of those seeking the final refuge from their harsh treatment (American Weekly Mercury, Sept. 2-9, 1731) p 107

Henry Smith beat to death an elderly White slave and raped two of his female White slaves in Virginia p 107

John Dandy beat to death his White slave boy whose black and blue body was found floating down a creek in Maryland p 107

Pope Alvey beat is White slave girl Alice Sanford to death in 1663. She was reported to have been "beaten to a jelley." p 107

Joseph Fincher beat his White slave Jeffery Haggman to death in 1664. p 107

John Grammer ordered his plantation overseer to beat his White slave 100 times with a cat-o'-nine-tails. (he died) p 107

There are thousands of cases in the colonial archives of inhuman mistreatment, cruelty, beatings and the entire litany of Uncle Tom's Cabin horrors administered to hapless White slaves. p 107

In The Fatal Shore, Robert Hughes describes the fate of White slaves as one of "prolonged and hideous torture."."another half pound mate, off the beggar's ribs"..the overseer's face and clothes were described as having the appearance of "a mincemeat chopper, being covered in flesh from the victim's body." (Hughes, p 115) p 108

In colonial America, in one case, the sole punishment for the murder of a White slave (explained as an accident) consisted of the master and is wife being forbidden form owning any White slaves for a period of three years. p 108

On the finding that the beating to death by Mistress Ward of her White slave girl was "unreasonable and unchristianlike," she was fined 300 pounds of tobacco. p 108

In 1678 Charles Grimlin, a wealthy American colonial planter, was found guilty of murdering a female White slave he owned, was pardoned and set free.

In the same year a woman "of low origins", who had killed her husband, a man of some wealth, was sentenced by the same judge to be 'burned alive according to the law." p 108

In thousands of cases of homicide against poor White slaves there were no trials at all-murdered White slaves were hurriedly buried so that decomposition would hide the crime. Others just "disappeared" or died from "accidents" or committed "suicide". For acquittals of masters in Virginia or instances of failure to prosecute them for the murder of White slaves, see Virginia General Court Minutes, VMH, XIX, 388). p 109

For information on Blacks allowed to accuse White slavemasters in court and who were freed from slavery as a result of hearings before White judges, see the minutes of Council of March 10, 1654 in the Lucas manuscripts, reel 1, f. 92, Bridgetown Public Library, Barbados). p 109

In Westmoreland County, Virginia in 1724 a White slave received twenty lashes for having complained of mistreatment. In 1738 another Westmoreland White slave, George Smith, was whipped Twenty-nine times for making a complaint. p 109

(White) servants were tortured for confessions (fire was inserted between their fingers and knotted ropes were put about their necks) (Beckles 'Rebels and Reactionaries', p 14, p 95)

Yet even as late as the mid-18th century, of 1724 wanted notices for fugitives from servitude, "the great majority" were White "indentured servants" (Jonathan Prude, "Runaway Ads and the Appearance of Unfree Laborers in America. 1750-1800," The Journal of American History, June 1991, p 138, p95

All white workers and the poor in colonial America were regarded as suspect---guilty of being fugitive slaves unless they could "give an intelligent account of themselves" or show their certificate; a very convenient arrangement for enslaving free White men and women in America by claiming they were fugitive White slaves.

In the British West Indies torture of White slaves was routine. Masters hung their White slaves up by their hands and set them on fire... To end this barbarity, Colonel William Brayne wrote to English authorities in 1656 urging the importation of negro slaves on the grounds that, "as the planters would have to pay much for them and would have an interest in preserving their lives, which was wanting in the case of (Whites)..." many of whom are killed by

overwork and cruel treatment p 83

In Virginina in 1699 persons who successfully hunted a White slave receive 1000 pounds of tobacco, paid for by the future labor that would be extracted from the White slave. P 96

Physical descriptions of runaway white slaves often included the mention of fresh whipping marks on their backs, iron collar scars, ugly burns, Thomas Burns was 'remarkably cut on the buttocks by a flogging' from his master, whereas Sarah Davis's shipping had left 'many scars on her back" (Ekirch, pp. 157-159) p97

The Articles of New England Confederation provided for the extradition of all runaway White slaves.

Between Feb 12, 1732 and Dec. 20, 1735, the South Carolina Gazette carried 110 wanted notices for fugitive Black slaves and forty one for fugitive White slaves. P 98

The US Constitution upheld the colonial fugitive White slave laws in its Article IV, section 2: 'No person held to service or labor in one state, under the Laws thereof escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from the Service or Labor, but shall be delivered up on a claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labor may be due." P 98

It was not until 1821 that the first legal blow to the system of White bondage occurred when an Indiana Court began to enforce the Ordinance of 1787 prohibiting White slavery, which held all White slavery null, void and unenforceable. The 13th amendment was the final blow to white slavery. P 98



The Indenture Racket:

An apprentice would be induced to borrow money under terms that he could not possibly meet, thereby guaranteeing his or her violation and earning an extension of their servitude that could transform their indenture into lifetime of slavery.

Those that signed indentures for land grants could forfeit them at the slightest pretext of his owner for even 'planning to run away (the owners affidavit would due for a conviction) or even for 'indolence'. By paying the six pound price of a White slave's transportation, the owner secured a "headright" to the land.

An additional fee to a spirit gang for kidnapping these slaves. Those White slaves that died in bondage or served additional time for ''violations' provided a land conveyor belt to their owners' estates.

Those that managed to survive their 30 or 40 years as chattel, could the be swindled out of the freedom dues acreage and left to live as landless peasants despite decades of hard labor. Those that actually got land had no tools or the means to work it. A small loan with an assured default was all that was needed to take it from them.

In Barbados, since their was no land left that was affordable as freedom dues, it became the custom to give 300 pounds of sugar, worth less than two pounds sterling ($4), a pittance for years of hard labor (Eric Williams pp102-103) p 84

Some had their health so ruined that no one would hire them and they just signed new contracts out of desparation on whatever terms their masters wanted (Ekirch pp 179- 183) p 85

Of 5000 of 'indentured servants' who entered the colony of Maryland between 1670 and 1680, fewer than 1300 proved their headrights to their 50 acre freedom dues. More than 1400 died from overwork, chronic malnourishment and disease. The other were defrauded.

A Virginia law of 1619 provided that 'if a servant willfully neglect his master's commands he shall suffer bodily punishment." When Wyatt became Governor in 1621, he was ordered to see that these punishment included bondage over to the colony itself after the original service was completed.

In colonial America, White people could be enslaved for such an offense as missing church services more than three times or for the "prevention of an idle course of life".

Seven years additional time was the standard punishment (after a severe whipping) for running away often in irons. All costs of recapture were added on, also. Of course these were abused and inflated.

For just being absent from the plantation at any time, a White slave would get an additional year for every two hours he was away. ( Beckles, White Servitude, p 84) p 88

Taking some extra food from the master's larder added an extra two years for each offense.

Young White female slaves were denied the right to marry, a device that assured a steady supply of violators whose pregnancy would add an extra two and a half years to her time. The man got at least four years and even up to seven.

A Virginia law of 1672 recognized that masters who had lengthened the enslavement of their White female slaves by making them pregnant by the slavemaster himself. No punishment was given to the master for such acts however. p 89

The enslavement of the White offspring of these unions followed the ancient Roman slave code "Partus sequitor ventrem" ( the condition of the child follows the condition of the mother). Girls were originally bound over for 31 years, later reduced to 18 when the Virginia Assembly in 1765 decided that 31 years was to severe. Boys got 18 years. Of course if these girls became pregnant, they were trapped all over again.


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